Heat olive oil in a large pot over medium heat. Add onion and saute 2 minutes then add garlic and saute 1 minute longer.
Pour in 2 cans of the chicken broth, add chicken and season with salt and pepper. Bring to a boil over medium-high heat, then reduce heat to medium-low, cover and simmer until chicken has cooked through (165 in center of each piece), about 10 - 15 minutes.
Remove chicken to a cutting board and rest 5 minutes then shred or chop.
While chicken is resting, pour canned tomatoes, tomato sauce, chili powder, ancho chili powder, cumin and coriander into soup.
In a medium mixing bowl whisk together remaining 1 can chicken broth with masa harina until well blended and no lumps remain. Pour into soup and stir.
Reduce heat to medium-low, cover and cook stirring occasionally until soup has thickened, about 5 minutes. Stir in black beans and corn and heat through.
Off heat stir in cheddar cheese, mixing until melted. Stir in up to 1 cup water to thin slightly if desired. Serve warm with desired toppings.